Countries With Higher Math Scores Have Unhappier Kids
Um. No. Even just an eye-ball scan shows this can’t possibly be a statistically significant finding. Too much “noise” in the data with far too many outliers.
Besides, look at the Pearson correlation coefficient: -0.32 is well below the +/- 0.7 typically used as a minimal threshold of statistical significance on its own. And the p-value of 0.011 would not be accepted as statistically significant even in a multiple regression model (and this is a simple bivariate model).
Basically, there’s only an 89% chance that the Pearson coefficient (-0.32) is correct. And that Pearson correlation coefficient (r) basically translates to an R-squared of 0.1024. In other words, math scores (PISA) can only account for about 10% of the variation in happiness (and vice versa) across countries.